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Ashatanga Yoga
This is commonly know as classical yoga contributed by the Father of Yoga , Sage Pathanjali. Through his 8limbs (Ashtanga Yoga) he has given a complete frame work to the Indian yoga than all Previous yoga concepts in terms of 196 Sutra or aphorisms in his great yoga text YOGA SUTRA. Yoga sutra mainly deals with spiritual discipline, You can also call Raja yoga (Royal Yoga) because it is mastery of the Mind and self. Ashtanga Yoga consists of Bahiranga Yoga ( Indirect Method) and Antaranga Yoga ( Direct Method) . Bahiranga Yoga or external Yoga has five components: Yama ( DON’Ts), Niyama ( Do’s), Asana (Posture), Pranayama ( Breath Regulation) and Pratyahara ( Mastery over senses) Antaranga Yoga has three components: Dharna ( intense concentration), Dhyana ( Meditation) and Samadhi ( State of Super Consciousness). All these explained as below:

(Ashta=8, Anga=limbs)
Ashtanga Yoga-8limbs

Sanskrit English
Yama Don’ts or Social Disciplines
Niyama Do’s or self Disciplines
Asana Steady Comfortable Yogic posture
Pranayama Science of Breathing
Pratyahara Dettachment of the mind from the sensual attractions.
Dharana Focusing on one object/through with effort along with distractions.
Dhyana effortless dwelling of mind on object/throught without distractions
Samadhi Enlightenment, A state of supreme Joy, Union of soul with supreme soul-ultimate duty of the man.

Pathanjali Yoga suthra(Aphorisms)
It is said that he is the author of a Sanskrit grammer and linguistics, compiler of the Yogasutra. That collects impaortant aphorisms of Ashtanga Yoga Prcatice. It also said that well known scholar and author of Ayurveda an ancient Medicine

Yoga Tradition is very much older we can see different Yoga in the Yoga Tradition for Example, Gita has refence of 3 kinds of yoga,where as yoga sutra indicates mainly complex part of the yoga, Mastery of Mind(Rajayoga-Royal Yoga).
It is said that there are more than 196 Yoga sutra. But availability is only 196 sutra that are devided into 4 chapters as below..

Pada English Meaning Sutra
Samadhi Pada Ability to Concentrate 51
Sadana Pada About the Practice 55
Vibhuti Pada Progressing 56
Kaivalya Pada Liberation 34

Yama (Social Descipline):
There are five
1. AHIMSA ( non-violence)
2. SATYA ( not to tell a lie)
3. ASTEYA ( non-theft)
4. BRAHMACHARYA ( non-indulgence)
5. APARIGRAHA ( non- accumulation)

Sanskrit Explanations:
• AHIMSA : AHIMSA PRATISHTHAYAM TAT-SAMNIDHAU VAIRA-THAGAH Abandonment of hostility in the presence of a yogi set in non-violence.
• SATYA : SATYA-PRATISHTHAYAM KRIYA-PHALA-ASRAYATVAM Development of intuitive faculty in a yogi set in Truthfulness
• ASTEYA : ASTEYA- PRATISHTHAYAM SARVA-RATNA-UPASTHANAM Knowledge of hidden treasure to a yogi set in Non-theft
• BRAHMACHARYA : BRAHMACHARYA PRATISHTHAYAM VIRYA-LABHAH Gain of vigour for a yogi set in Non-indulgence
• APARIGRAHA : APARIGRAHA – STHAIRYE JANMA – KATHAMTA – SAMOBODHAH Mystery of life resolved for one who is established in Non-possession

Niyama (individual disciplines):
Niyama are also five:
1. SAUCHA ( purity, both external and internal)
2. SANTHOSHA( contentment)
3. TAPAS ( austerity)
4. SWADHYAYA ( self- study)
5. ISHWARA-PRANIDHANA ( surrender to the Divine)

Sanskrit explanation
• SOUCHA OR PURITY : SAUCHAT SVANGA-JUGUPSE PARAIH – ASAMSARGAH From ( practice ) of Purity, disillusionment and detachment from gross bodies SATTVA-SUDDHI-SAUMANSYA-AIKAGRYA-INDRIYA-JAYA-ATMA-DARSANAA-YOGYATAMCHA From mental purity Sattva, cheerfulness, concentration, mastery over senses and capacity to ‘see’ the Self
• SANTHOSHA : SANTHOSHAT-ANUTTAMAH SUKHA-LABHAH From Contentment, superlative happiness
• TAPAS : KAYA-INDRIYA-SIDDHI-ASUDDHI-KSHAYAT TAPASAH From Austerity, destruction of impurity and perfection of body and sense organs
• SWADHYAYA : SWADHYAYAT- ISTA-DEVATA-SAMPRAYOGAH From Self-study, union with the desired deity.
• ISHWARA PRANIDHANA : SAMADHI-SIDHI-ISWARA-PRANIDHANAT from Surrender to the Divine accomplishment of Samadhi
Note: Yama are negative in nature ( Nishedha or Don’ts) whereas Niyama are positive ( vidhi or Do’s). Yama are for social harmony whereas Niyama are for individual growth. They are to be practiced by thought ( Manasa), Word (Vacha) and Deed ( Karmana) till a yogi is SET ( established) .

Asana( Body posture):
Sthira Sukham Asanam ( Posture shold be stable and relaxed) Prayatna Saithilya Ananta Samapatibhyam ( (Relax it) by withdrawing the effort and attuning to infinity) Tath Dvandwa Ana-abhi-Gatah ( Then freedom from the pairs of opposite)

Pranayama(Science of breathing):
Tasmin sati svasa prasvasyoh gati vicchedah pranayama(II-49) After mastering posture, one must practice control of the prana(pranayama) by stopping the motions of inhalation and exhalation. The breath may be stopped externally, or internally, or checked in mid-motion, and regulated according to place, time and a fixed number of moments, so that the stoppage is either protracted or brief
1.Two results: Tatah ksiyate prakash avarana(II-52), i.e. The inner effulgence is uncovered and
2.Dharanasu ca yogayata manasah(II-53) i.e. The mind becomes capable of Dharana(Pre-meditative state).

(withdrawal of sense organs “Jnana Indriyas and Karma Indriyas(action organs) SWAVISHAYASAMPRAYOGE CHITHASWAROPANUKARA IVENDRIYANAM PRATYAHARAH When the mind is withdrawn from sense-objects, the sense-organs also withdraw themselves from their objects and are said to imitate the mind. This is known as pratyahara. TATAH PARAMA VASHAYATHENDRIYANAMRA Thence arises complete mastery over the senses

Dharana(intense concentration):
DESHA BANDHA CHITTASYA DHARANA Holding the ‘mind’ at one point is Dharana

Dhyana (Meditation):
TATRA PRATYAYA EKA-TANATA DHYANAM (In the state of meditation) the ‘object’ is retained continuously ( un-interrupted) ( in mind) (Un-interrupted flow of consciousness towards the object)

Samadhi (State of Superconsciousness):
TADEVA ARTHA MATRA NIRBHASAM, SWARUPA SUNYAM IVA SAMADHI (When) the same object only shines, as if(you) are not there, it is Samadhi ( In the state of samadhi only the object remains, the self is, as if, not there) This is called Triputi bhanga i.e, the merger of the Seer ( Subject), process of seeing and Seen ( Object)
Ashtanga Yoga implementation (all of above)
• Yama( You will learn social discipline and comfort life in the society)
• Niyama(You will learn self discipline and enough preparation to continue yoga journey)
• Asanas( Remove physical deformities to make body healthy and to sit with stability and comfort)
• Pranayama( channelizing prana for connection purposes)
• Prathyahara( withdraw sense organs to stop mind from peeping out .Before coming to Dharana we have to learn Ekagratha ( Focusing-Single Object, Multiple thoughts) to tame the randomness of mind ( chanchalatha-Multiple object, Multiple thoughts))
• DHARANA ( Single object, Single thought with effort along with distractions )
• DHYANA ( Single object , single thought effortlessly without distractions)
• SAMADHI( Only the object with single thought shines-oneness-enlightenment stage)